Rol de la condición física sobre la salud durante el envejecimiento

  1. M.A. Pérez Sousa
Supervised by:
  1. Jesús del Pozo Cruz Director
  2. Robinson Ramírez Vélez Director

Defence university: Universidad de Sevilla

Year of defence: 2021

Type: Thesis


Introduction: During aging, a series of biochemical and physical changes occur, affecting the main functions of the human body. There is sufficient scientific evidence that physical inactivity aggravates weight gain, fat tissue, and muscle mass loss. So, physical inactivity worsens older adults' health and, therefore, the functions in daily life. However, the role that physical fitness plays among common comorbidities in older adults is unknown. The papers presented in this Doctoral Thesis are based on results obtained from the analysis of the database of the National Study of Health, Well-being and Aging, SABE Colombia 2015 Study 1: The aim was to know the prevalence of probable sarcopenia according to the European Working Group's updates on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 and explore the associated factors. The analysis included 5237 Colombian men and women aged 60 years or older. The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.1 ─ 47.8). Physical inactivity (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14 ─ 1.59), diabetes (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.11 ─ 1.56) and arthritis (OR = 1, 44, 95% CI = 1.25 ─ 1.67), were closely related to probable sarcopenia. Study 2: This study aimed to determine if the speed of the gait moderated the association between obesity and functional dependence. Also, the thresholds for moderation were examined according to the Johnson-Neyman statistical technique. A total of 20,507 Colombian older adults participated. The results indicated that gait speed moderated (β = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.045 ─ 0.117) the association between obesity and functional dependence. The thresholds below which the gait speed negatively moderated the association were <0.77 m / s. On the contrary, the second threshold above which the gait speed positively moderated the association was> 1. 06 m / s.Study 3: The aim was to determine whether excess central adiposity is related to functional dependence and whether this association was moderated by handgrip strength. Four thousand one hundred sixty-nine individuals older than 59 years participated in this study. The results highlighted the mediating role of manual grip strength on the inverse relationship between excess adiposity and functional dependence. The thresholds obtained by the Johnson-Neyman technique were 0.35 kg / kg2 and 0.62 kg / kg2. Doctorado en Ciencias de la Salud Autor: Miguel Ángel Pérez Sousa 13 Study 4: The study aimed to know if the loss of muscle strength associated with excess central adiposity could be mediated by glucose level in the blood. A total of 1571 Colombian older adults participated in the study. The results indicated that blood glucose mediated the detrimental effect of excess central adiposity on muscle strength (β = -0.069, 95% CI = -0.082 - -0.057). Study 5: This study's objective was to find out if gait speed and handgrip strength were associated with cognitive impairment. Besides, the possible mediating role of gait speed and handgrip strength on cognitive impairment associated with aging was examined. 4416 Colombians with age equal to or greater than 60 years participated. The results highlighted the close relationship between gait speed and muscle strength on cognition. Also, the mediation analyzes showed that these two components of physical condition mediated the cognitive deterioration associated with aging.