Espazos protexidos e desenvolvemento territorialUnha análise comparativa de estudos de caso galegos e internacionais

  1. Daniel del Río Franqueira
Supervised by:
  1. José Antonio Aldrey Vázquez Director
  2. Rafael Mata Olmo Director

Defence university: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Year of defence: 2019

  1. Maria Helena Mesquita Pina Chair
  2. Dominic Royé Secretary
  3. Ester Massó Guijarro Committee member

Type: Thesis


Protected areas have been the main strategy to fight against problems arising from human activity, such as pollution, global warming or loss of biodiversity. Each country has developed its own strategies, often sharing nomenclature, but having different objectives. Traditionally, these spaces have been introduced from outside without taking into account the inhabitants of those territories. This led to a strong rejection among the population as well as an increase of conflict. Protected areas are considered as something imposed that makes restrictions tighten up and that do not contribute positively to the development of the people. Besides, its management was aimed both at nature conservation and restoration of habitats, limiting the activities the population could do. There was also a lack of information and communication, and given this dichotomy between nature and society, other activities hardly figured at the actions of the managers. Over time, the philosophy behind these kinds of preservation has changed, while the relationship between society and nature also changed. “A protection against the population” changed to “a protection for the population”, in which people are considered as actors playing a critical role in the shaping of these protected areas. This makes people increase their interest in the most social part of the conservation. Protected areas are not viewed as something isolated anymore. Indeed, it is intended to connect them both with the territorial system they belong and among themselves. As a result, new international networks enhancing the exchange of experiences are created, as well as connections among different areas. The present work compares how three models of protection -in three different countries- are adapted to the new paradigm for nature conservation. It also analyses to what extent two of their fundamental pillars are taken into account in their policies: 1) The participation of local population both in management and planning and 2) The use of these categories as tools leading to sustainable development, generally and to welfare improvement of the population, particularly. We chose three different models for this purpose: the Parque Natural da Baixa Limia – Serra do Xurés, located in the south of Ourense (Galiza), the Parc Régional des Causses du Quercy, situated in the french department of Lot, and the Salambala Conservancy, in the Zambezi region of Namibia. The methodology used is the mixed method, as it allows us to use the most positive aspects of both the qualitative and quantitative method, as well as to address their deficiencies. I conducted surveys and interviews, both informal and in-depth semi-structured. Data were analysed using R language environment. Comparing the three case studies through the analysis of their characteristics, the percepction of the local population and the discourse created about themselves, we shall determine which of them were more successfully introduced and which of them succeeded in creating an own identity around.