Variables de rendimiento y penalizaciones técnicas del salto zancada

  1. M Rodríguez Galán 1
  2. Luis Arturo Gómez-Landero 1
  1. 1 Universidad Pablo Olavide. Sevilla
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte

ISSN: 1577-0354

Argitalpen urtea: 2018

Alea: 18

Zenbakia: 72

Orrialdeak: 605-619

Mota: Artikulua

DOI: 10.15366/RIMCAFD2018.72.001 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openSarbide irekia editor

Beste argitalpen batzuk: Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte


The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the following aspects: the technical penalties obtained in the execution of an isolated gymnastics element, the competitive level of the gymnasts, their anthropometric characteristics, and the most important temporal and angular variables analyzed in this skill. Twenty nine gymnasts (aged 17.1 ± 3.1 years) from different competition levels were selected. Three coaches evaluated the execution through an adaptation of the Code of Points. Significant direct and indirect associations were observed (p < 0.05): low adiposity index (rho = 0.643), take-off total time (rho = 0.619), flight total time (rho = - 0.596), maximum range of motion of the hips (rho = - 0.902), and maximum extension of ankles (rho = - 0.738). The assessment of penalties as well as the use of competitive level and Split Leap as specific tests, have demonstrated to be useful tools for evaluating performance

Erreferentzia bibliografikoak

  • Aragón, J., Fernández, J., Gómez, R., Carrasco, A., Mora, J. and González, J.L. (2010) Kinematic analysis of throwing between rigth and left top member in wáter-polo. International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport, 10(39), 369-379.
  • Byung-Hoon, W., Kae-san, L. and Hee-Kyo, I. (2002) Analysis of Kinematic on Ring jump in the Rhythmic Sport Gymnastics. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 12(2), 65-76. DOI:
  • Camargo, C.T., Gomez-Campos, R.A., Cossio-Bolaños, M.A., Barbeta, V.J., Arruda, M. and Guerra-Junior, G. (2014) Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes. Journal of Sport Sciences, 32(19), 1790-1796. DOI:
  • Cicchella, A. (2009) Kinematics analysis of selected rhythmic gymnastics leaps. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 4(1), 40-47. DOI:
  • Claessens, A.L., Lefevre, J., Beunen, G., Stijnen, V., Maes, H. and Veer, F.M. (1991) Gymnastics performance as related to anthropometric and somatotype characteristics in male gymnasts. Anthropology, 33, 243-247.
  • Claessens, A.L., Lefevre, J., Beunen, G. and Malina, R. (1999) The contribution of anthropometric characteristics to performance scores in elite female gymnasts. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39(4), 355360.
  • Delas, S., Miletic, A. and Miletic, D. (2008) The influence of motor factors on performing fundamental movement skills – The differences between boys and girls. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 6(1), 31-39.
  • Di Cagno, A., Baldari, C., Battaglia, C., Brasili, P., Merni, F., Piazza, M., Toselli, S., Ventrella, A.R. and Guidetti, L. (2008) Leaping ability and body composition in rhythmic gymnasts for talent identification. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48(3), 341-346.
  • Di Cagno, A., Baldari, C., Battaglia, C., Monteiro, M.A., Pappalardo, A., Piazza, M. and Guidetti, L. (2009) Factors influencing performance of competitive and amateur rhythmic gymnastics-Gender differences. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12, 411-416. DOI:
  • Douda, T., Toubekis, A., Avloniti, A. and Tokmakidis, S. (2008) Physiological and anthropometric determinants of Rhythmic gymnastics performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3, 41-54. DOI:
  • Dyhre-Poulsen, P. (1987) An analysis of split leaps and gymnastics kill by physiological recordings. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 56(4), 390-397. DOI:
  • Esparza, F. (1993) Kinanthropometry Manual: Monographs FEMEDE. 1st ed. Madrid, Spain: GREC FEMEDE.
  • FIG (2013) Code of Points 2013-2016. International Gymnastics Federation.
  • Gómez-Landero, L.A., López, J. and Vernetta, M. (2013) Active and passive flexibility evaluation in spanish trampolinists. International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport, 13(49), 5572.
  • Grande, I., Bautista, A. and Hontoria, M. (2008) Applied Biomechanics to the design of a tool for rhythmic gymnastics to evaluate jumps taking account the International Code of Points. Apunts: Physical Education and Sports, 3, 55-61.
  • Hay, J.G. (1993) The Biomechanics of Sports Techniques. 4th Ed. New Jersey, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Hopkins, W.G. (2006) A scale of magnitudes for effect statistics. Accessed July 2014.
  • Hume, P., Hopkins, W., Robinson, D.M., Robinson, S.M. and Hollings, S. (1993) Predictors of attainment in rhythmic sportive gymnastics. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33(4), 367-377.
  • López, J. and Vernetta, M. (1997) Application of a basic gymnastic test for talent identification in artistic gymnastics in the generic phase of adaptation and initiation to physical and sporting activities. European Journal of Human Movement, 3, 67-87.
  • Marfell-Jones, M., Olds, T., Stewart, A. and Carter, L. (2006) International standards for anthropometric assessment. Potchefstroom, South Africa: ISAK.
  • Mendizábal, S. (2001) Fundamentals of the Rhythmic Gymnastics: Myths and realities. Madrid, Spain: Gymnos.
  • Menezes, L.S. and Filho, J.F. (2006) Identification and comparison of dermatoglyphics, somatotype and basic physical aptitude characteristics of rhythmic gymnasts of different qualification levels. Fitness & Performance Journal, 5(6).
  • Miletic, D., Katic, R. and Males, B. (2004) Some anthropologic factors of performance in rhythmic gymnastics novices. Collegium Antropologicum, 28(2), 727-737.
  • Miletic, D. and Kostic, R. (2006) Motor and morphological conditionality for performing arabesque and passe pivots. Facta Universitatis Series: Physical Education and Sport, 4(1), 17-25.
  • Mkaouer, B., Amara, S. and Tabka, Z. (2012) Split leap with and without ball performance factors in rhythmic gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 4(2), 75.
  • Mkaouer, B., Jemni, M., Amara, S., Chaabène, H., Padulo, J. and Tabka, Z. (2014) Effect of Three Technical Arms Swings on The Elevation of the Center of Mass During a Standing Back Somersault. Journal of Human Kinetics, 40, 37–48. DOI:
  • Potop, V. and Timnea, O. (2012) Comparative biomechanical analysis of key elements in stretched salto backward yurchenko vault. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(4), 521.
  • Rodríguez, M., Villacieros, J. and Ferro, A. (2013) Analysis of the coordination and the sequence of corporal movements in the Split Leap of rhythmic gymnastics. In: Rojas, F.J. and Gutiérrez, C. (Eds.) 34th Congress of the Iberian Society of Biomechanics and Biomaterials (p. 78) Granada, Spain: University of Granada.
  • Romero, B., Palomino, A. and González, J.J. (2011) The Rhythmic Gymnastics anthropometric profile. Apunts: Physical Education and Sports, 103, 48.
  • Se-Mi, S., Ji-Seon, R. and Tae-Sam, K. (2011) The Biomechanical Analysis of two and half rotation technic of Penche in Rhythmic Gymnastics. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 21(3), 269-279. DOI:
  • Siegel, S. and Castellan, N.J. (1995) Nonparametric statistics applied to behavioral sciences. México: Trillas.
  • Tae-sam, K. (2011) Variability of kinematical factors during consecutive 9 backward illusion motion at rhythmic gymnastics. The Korean Society of Sports Science, 20(3), 1679-1696.
  • Vernetta, M., Fernández, E., López-Bedoya, J., Gómez-Landero, A. and Oña, A. (2011) A study of the Morphological and Psychological Characteristics of the Andalusian Rhythmic Gymnastics Team. European Journal of Human Movement, 26, 77-92.
  • Zetaruk, M., Violan, M., Zurakowski, D., Mitchell, W. and Micheli, L. (2006) Recommendations for the training and injury prevention in elite rhythmic gymnasts. Apunts: Physical Education and Sports, 151, 100-106.
  • Zisi, V., Giannitsopoulou, E., Vassiliadou, O., Pollatou, E. and Kiomourtzoglou, E. (2009) Performance level, abilities and psychological characteristics in young junior rhythmic gymnasts: The role of sport experience. International Quarterly of Sport Science, 1(4), 1-13.