Propiedades psicométricas de una prueba sobre creencias docentes respecto de la integración de las TIC

  1. Cartagena Beteta, Mario 1
  2. Revuelta Domínguez, Francisco Ignacio 2
  3. Pedrera-Rodríguez, María-Inmaculada 2
  1. 1 Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú
  2. 2 Universidadde Extremadura, Cáceres
RED: revista de educación a distancia

ISSN: 1578-7680

Year of publication: 2022

Volume: 22

Issue: 70

Type: Article

DOI: 10.6018/RED.524401 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDIGITUM editor

More publications in: RED: revista de educación a distancia


This study is part of a doctoral research that analyzes the relationship between socioemotional competencies (SEC) and the teaching beliefs of secondary school teachers. In this sense, it is necessary to have a valid, reliable instrument adapted to the sociocultural reality of public school teachers in Metropolitan Lima in coherence with international theoretical frameworks and existing empirical research. Thus, an ad hoc test was designed under the Classical Test Theory, taking into account a classification of teaching beliefs, and the respective psychometric analysis was carried out. A total of 393 teachers from the seven Local Educational Management Units (UGEL) of Metropolitan Lima participated. The methodology included the determination of content and construct validity, as well as the analysis of reliability by internal consistency. This research provides an instrument of 30 items on a Likert scale with optimal validity and reliability indicators for the Peruvian reality with the possibility of being extrapolated to other South American contexts for the diagnosis, research and evaluation of the effectiveness of ICT training programs within the framework of the paradigm of teacher thinking.

Bibliographic References

  • Abdi, H., & Asadi, B. (2015). A Synopsis of Researches on Teachers’ and Students’ Beliefs about Language. Learning. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 3(4), 104-114.
  • Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 131-142. https://doi-org/10.1177/0013164485451012
  • Alharbi, A. (2021). A review of the internal and external factors affecting teachers’ ICT use in Classroom. International Journal of Education and Research, 9(12), 105 – 116.
  • Altınay-Gazi, Z., & Altınay-Aksal, F. (2017). Technology as mediation tool for improving teaching profession in higher education practices. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(3), 803-813
  • Arbuckle, J. L. (2017). IBM SPSS Amos 25 User’s Guide. IBM Corporation.
  • American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association y National Council on Measurement in Education (2018). ESTÁNDARES para Pruebas Educativas y Psicológicas. American Educational Research Association
  • Argyris, C. & Schon, D. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. Jossey-bass.
  • Ashton, P. (2015). Historical overview and theoretical perspectives of research on teacher’s beliefs. En H. Fives & M. Gregoire (Eds). International Handbook of research on teacher’s beliefs (pp. 31 – 47). Routledge.
  • Ato, M., López-García, J. J., & Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. Anales de Psicología, 29(3), 1038-1059.
  • Bahcivan, E., Gurer, M. D., Yavuzalp, N., & Akayoglu, S. (2019). Investigating the relations among pre-service teachers’ teaching/learning beliefs and educational technology integration competencies: A structural equation modeling study. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28(5), 579-588.
  • Baker, R. S., & Gowda, S. M. (2018). The 2018 technology & learning insights report: Towards understanding app effectiveness and cost.
  • Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in grammar teaching: A literature review. Language awareness, 12(2), 96-108. https://doi-org/10.1080/09658410308667069
  • Byrne, V.L., & Donlan, A.E. (2020). Formative Feedback on On-Line Teaching: Tools for
  • Pandemic Pedagogy (Pandemigogy).
  • Cabero-Almenara, J., Barroso-Osuna, J., Llorente-Cejudo, C., & Palacios-Rodríguez, A. (2022). Validación del marco europeo de competencia digital docente mediante ecuaciones estructurales. Revista mexicana de investigación educativa, 27(92), 185-208.
  • Carmines, E., & Zeller, R. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Sage.
  • Carstens, R., & Pelgrum, W. J. (Eds.). (2009). Second information technology in education study technical report. The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).
  • Chand, V. S., Deshmukh, K. S., & Shukla, A. (2020). Why does technology integration fail? Teacher beliefs and content developer assumptions in an Indian initiative. Educational Technology Research & Development, 68, 2753–2774.
  • Chang, S., Hsu, T., Kuo, W., & Jong, M. S. (2020). Effects of applying a VR-based two-tier test strategy to promote elementary students’ learning performance in a Geology class. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(1), 148–165.
  • Chen, L., & Xiao, S. (2021). Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies of science teachers in teaching socioscientific issues: A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 32, Article 100377.
  • Cheng, S. L., Chang, J. C., & Romero, K. (2021). Are Pedagogical Beliefs an Internal Barrier for Technology Integration? The Interdependent Nature of Teacher Beliefs. Education and Information Technologies, 1-18.
  • Cheng, S. L., Chen, S. B., & Chang, J. C. (2020). Examining the multiplicative relationships between teachers’ competence, value and pedagogical beliefs about technology integration. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(2), 734-750.
  • Cheng, S.-L., Lu, L., Xie, K., & Vongkulluksn, V. W. (2020). Understanding teacher technology integration from expectancy-value perspectives. Teaching and Teacher Education, 91, 103062.
  • Cheng, S-L., & Xie C. K. (2018). The relations among teacher value beliefs personal characteristics and TPACK in intervention and non-intervention settings. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 98–113.
  • Chester, D. S., & Lasko, E. N. (2021). Construct validation of experimental manipulations in social psychology: Current practices and recommendations for the future. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 16(2), 377-395. https://doi-org/10.1177/1745691620950684
  • Choi, H., Chung, S. Y., & Ko, J. (2021). Rethinking teacher education policy in ICT: Lessons from emergency remote teaching (ERT) during the COVID-19 pandemic period in Korea. Sustainability, 13(10), Article 5480.
  • Chong, S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Quek, C. L. (2005). Pre-service teachers beliefs, attitudes and expectations: a review of the literature. Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice.
  • Clark, C. M. & Peterson. P.L. (1986). Teachers" thought processes. En Wittroch (Ed.). Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 255-296). Macmillan.
  • Clark, C. M., & Yinger, R. J. (1977). Research on teacher thinking. Curriculum inquiry, 7(4), 279-304. https://doi-org/10.1080/03626784.1977.11076224
  • Daniel, S.J., 2020. Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects 49(1), 91–96.
  • DeVellis, R. (2017). Scale Development Theory and Applications. (4ª ed.). SAGE Publications
  • Di Martino, P., & Sabena, C. (2010). Teachers’ beliefs: The problem of inconsistency with practice. En M. Pinto, & T. Kawasaki (Eds.). Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 2, pp. 313-320). PME.
  • Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2020). From expectancy-value theory to situated expectancy value theory: A developmental, social cognitive, and sociocultural perspective on motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, Article 101859.
  • Erbaz, M. K. (2021). Predictive Validity of Teaching Efficacy Beliefs on Teaching-Learning Conceptions: A Study of Physical Education Teacher Candidates. Journal of Education and Learning, 10(1), 61-73.
  • Ertmer, P. A. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 47–61.
  • Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25–39.
  • Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255–284.
  • Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., & Tondeur, J. (2015). Teachers’ beliefs and uses of technology to support 21st-century teaching and learning. En H. Fives & M. Gregoire (Eds). International Handbook of research on teacher’s beliefs (pp. 403 - 418). Routledge.
  • Escobar-Pérez, J., y Cuervo-Martínez, Á. (2008). Validez de contenido y juicio de expertos: una aproximación a su utilización. Avances en medición, 6(1), 27-36.
  • Ferri, F., Grifoni, P., & Guzzo, T. (2020). Online learning and emergency remote teaching: Opportunities and challenges in emergency situations. Journal Societies, 10(86), 1-18.
  • Fives, H. & Buehl, M. (2012). Spring cleaning for the “messy” construct of teachers’ beliefs: What are they? Which have been examined? What can they tell us? En K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook: Volume 2 Individual differences and Cultural and Contextual Factors (p. 471–499). American Psychological Association.–000
  • Fives, H. & Gregoire, M. (2015). International Handbook of Research on Teachers’ Beliefs. Routledge.
  • Gebhardt, E., Thomson, S., Ainley, J., & Hillman, K. (2019). Gender differences in computer and information literacy (Vol. 8). Springer International Publishing.
  • Gentles, C. H., & Haynes, T. (2021). Latin American and Caribbean teachers’ transition to online teaching during the pandemic: Challenges, Changes and Lessons Learned. Píxel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación, 61, 131-163.
  • Gil-Flores, J., Rodríguez-Santero, J., & Torres-Gordillo, J.-J. (2017). Factors that explain
  • the use of ICT in secondary-education classrooms: The role of teacher characteristics
  • and school infrastructure. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 441–449.
  • Gómez-López, J., & Cano, J. (2011). El pensamiento docente y su influencia en la implantación de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en el aula: desafíos y oportunidades. Contextos educativos. Revista de educación, (14), 67-84.
  • Gurer, M. D., & Akkaya, R. (2021). The influence of pedagogical beliefs on technology acceptance: a structural equation modeling study of pre-service mathematics teachers. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 1-17.
  • Habte, A., Bishaw, A., & Lechissa, M. (2021). Beyond policy narratives: exploring the role of pedagogical beliefs in classroom practices of secondary school Civics and Ethical Education teachers. Smart Learning Environments, 8(1), 1-26.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W., Babin, B. & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7° Ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Häusler, N., Pirner, M., Scheunpflug, A. & Kröner, S. (2019). Religious and Professional Beliefs of Schoolteachers – A Literature Review of Empirical Research. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18(5), 24-41.
  • Hervás, C., & Martín, J. (1996). Evaluación de necesidades formativas, actitudes y creencias del profesorado de Educación Secundaria. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 1 (0), 1-8.
  • Hoffman, B. & Seidel, K. (2015). Measuring Teacher’s Beliefs For What Purpose?. En H. Fives & M. Gregoire (Eds). International Handbook of research on teacher’s beliefs (pp. 106 - 127). Routledge.
  • Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008, June 19-20). Evaluating model fit: a synthesis of the structural equation modelling literature [Conference presentation]. 7th European Conference on research methodology for business and management studies (pp. 195-200). Regent College.
  • Hsu, P.-S. (2016). Examining current beliefs, practices and barriers about technology integration: A case study. TechTrends, 60(1), 30–40. 8-015-0014-3
  • Ifinedo, E., Rikala, J., & Hämäläinen, T. (2020). Factors affecting Nigerian teacher educators’ technology integration: Considering characteristics, knowledge constructs, ICT practices and beliefs. Computers & education, 146, Article 103760.
  • Iliescu, D. (2017). Adapting tests in linguistic and cultural situations. Cambridge University Press
  • Jackson, P. (1968). Life in classrooms. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Jebb, A. T., Ng, V., & Tay, L. (2021). A review of key Likert scale development advances: 1995–2019. Frontiers in psychology, 12, Article 1590.
  • Jiménez, A. & Feliciano, L. (2006). Pensar el pensamiento del profesorado. Revista española de pedagogía, 64 (233), 105-122.
  • Knezek, G., & Christensen, R. (2016). Extending the will, skill, tool model of technology
  • integration: Adding pedagogy as a new model construct. Journal of Computing in
  • Higher Education, 28(3), 307–325.
  • Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. The Guilford Press.
  • Kreitchmann, R. S., Abad, F. J., Ponsoda, V., Nieto, M. D., & Morillo, D. (2019). Controlling for response biases in self-report scales: Forced-choice vs. psychometric modeling of Likert items. Frontiers in psychology, 10, Article 2309.
  • Landis J., & Koch G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement forcategorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159-174.
  • Levin, B. (2015). The Development of Teacher’s Beliefs. En H. Fives & M. Gregoire. International Handbook of Research on Teachers Belief (pp. 48 - 65). Routledge.
  • Liu, H., Lin, C. H., & Zhang, D. (2017). Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes toward information and communication technology: a survey of teachers of English as a foreign language in China. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(8), 745-765. https://doi-org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1347572
  • López-Vargas, O., Duarte-Suárez, L., & Ibañez-Ibáñez, J. (2017). Teacher’s computer self-efficacy and its relationship with cognitive style and TPACK. Improving Schools, 20(2), 264–277.
  • Mason, S. L., & Rich, P. J. (2019). Preparing elementary school teachers to teach computing, coding, and computational thinking. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 19(4), 790–824.
  • Merino, C., y Livia, J. (2009). Intervalos de confianza asimétricos para el índice la validez de contenido: Un programa Visual Basic para la V de Aiken. Anales de Psicología, 25(1), 169-171.
  • Mo, X. (2020). Teaching Reading and Teacher Beliefs: A Sociocultural Perspective. Springer.
  • Moliner, L., Sanahuja, A., & Alegre, F. (2021). Development and validation of pedagogical beliefs about teaching practices questionnaire: a cross-continental study. Pedagogika, 143(3), 45-67.
  • Muenks, K., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2018). I can do this! the development and calibration of children’s expectations for success and competence beliefs. Developmental Review, 48, 24–39.
  • National Institute of Education (1975). R&D Funding Policies of the National Institute of Education: Review and Recommendations. United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
  • Odebiyi, O. & Choi, Y. (2020): The challenges of measuring epistemic beliefs across cultures: evidence from Nigerian teacher candidates. Teaching Education, 1- 23.
  • O ́Dwyer, Laura & Bernauer, James (2014). Quantitative research for the qualitative research. Sage
  • Oyunge, T. O. (2021). Exploring secondary school teachers’pedagogical beliefs and the integration of ict in the context of a developing country: a technology acceptance model perspective. European Journal of Education Studies, 8(3), 206 – 237.
  • Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of educational research, 62(3), 307-332.
  • Pareja Roblin, N., Tondeur, J., Voogt, J., Bruggeman, B., Mathieu, G., & van Braak, J. (2018). Practical considerations informing teachers’ technology integration decisions: The case of tablet PCs. Technology. Pedagogy and Education, 27(2), 165–181.
  • Reichert, F., Lange, D., & Chow, L. (2021). Educational beliefs matter for classroom instruction: A comparative analysis of teachers’ beliefs about the aims of civic education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 98, Article 103248.
  • Rich, P. J., Larsen, R. A., & Mason, S. L. (2021). Measuring teacher beliefs about coding and computational thinking. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 53(3), 296-316. https://doi-org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1771232
  • Roose, I., Vantieghem, W., Vanderlinde, R., & Van Avermaet, P. (2019). Beliefs as fil-ters for comparing inclusive classroom situations. Connecting teachers’ beliefs about teaching diverse learners to their noticing of inclusive classroom characteristics in videoclips. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 56, 140–151.
  • Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values. Jossey-Bass Inc.
  • Rubach, C., & Lazarides, R. (2021). Addressing 21st-century digital skills in schools–Development and validation of an instrument to measure teachers' basic ICT competence beliefs. Computers in Human Behavior, 118, Article 106636.
  • Safrudiannur, S., & Rott, B. (2019, February). Students’ abilities on the relationship between beliefs and practices [Conference presentation]. Eleventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (No. 27). Freudenthal Group; Freudenthal Institute; ERME.
  • Safrudiannur, S., & Rott, B. (2021). Offering an approach to measure beliefs quantitatively: Capturing the influence of students’ abilities on teachers’ beliefs. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19(2), 419-441.
  • Sampeiro, V. M. (2019). Ecuaciones estructurales en los modelos educativos: características y fases en su construcción. Apertura, 11(1), 90-103.
  • Schoen, R. & LaVenia, M. (2019) Teacher beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning: Identifying and clarifying three constructs. Cogent Education, 6(1), Article 1599488.
  • Schutz, P., Hong, J., Francis, D. (2020). Teachers’ Goals, Beliefs, Emotions, and Identity Development. Investigating Complexities in the Profession. Routledge
  • Shavelson, R. J., & Stern, P. (1981). Research on teachers’ pedagogical thoughts, judgments, decisions, and behavior. Review of educational research, 51(4), 455-498. https://doi-org/10.3102%2F00346543051004455
  • Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-23.
  • Siddiquee, N. E. (2014). Exploring Beliefs on Teaching-Learning and Actual Practices: A Case of Secondary School Science Teachers in Bangladesh. [Doctoral dissertation, 広島大学] Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Hiroshima.
  • Sim, J., & Wright, C. C. (2005). The kappa statistic in reliability studies: use, interpretation, and sample size requirements. Physical therapy, 85(3), 257-268.
  • Simms, L. J., Zelazny, K., Williams, T. F., & Bernstein, L. (2019). Does the number of response options matter? Psychometric perspectives using personality questionnaire data. Psychological assessment, 31(4), 557.
  • Skott, J. (2015). The promises, problems and prospects of research on teacher’s beliefs. En H. Fives & M. Gregoire. International Handbook of Research on Teachers Belief (pp. 13 – 30). Routledge.
  • Stratton, S. J. (2021). Population research: convenience sampling strategies. Prehospital and disaster Medicine, 36(4), 373-374.
  • Sund, P. (2015). Experienced ESD-Schoolteachers’ Teaching – An Issue of complexity. Environmental Education Research 21 (1), 24–44. .
  • Taibi, M. (2012). The Development of Professional Beliefs during Teacher Education at University. En J. König (Ed.). Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs. Definition and operationalisation–connections to knowledge and performance–development and change (pp. 53 - 70). Waxmann.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2005). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi (2. bs). Nobel Yayınları.
  • Teo, T., Huang, F., & Hoi, C. K. W. (2018). Explicating the influences that explain intention to use technology among English teachers in China. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(4), 460–475.
  • Tondeur, J. (2020). Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs and Technology Use. En M. A. Peters (ed.), Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (pp. 1-5). Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
  • Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). Exploring the link between teachers’ educational belief profiles and different types of computer use in the classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2541–2553.
  • Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship between teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(3), 555–575.
  • Uslu, N. A., & Usluel, Y. K. (2019). Predicting technology integration based on a conceptual framework for ICT use in education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 28(5), 517–531.
  • Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS quarterly, 27(3), 425-478. https://doi-org/10.2307/30036540
  • Vongkulluksn, V. W., Xie, K., & Bowman, M. A. (2018). The role of value on teachers’ internalization of external barriers and externalization of personal beliefs for classroom technology integration. Computers & Education, 118, 70–81. du.2017.11.009
  • Wang, J., Tigelaar, D., Luo, J. & Admiraal, W. (2022). Teacher beliefs, classroom process quality, and student engagement in the smart classroom learning environment: A multilevel analysis. Computers & Education, 183, Article 104501.
  • Weijters, B., & Baumgartner, H. (2022). On the use of balanced item parceling to counter acquiescence bias in structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 25(1), 170-180. https://doi-org/10.1177/1094428121991909
  • Woods, D. (2009). Teacher cognition and language education: research and practice, Borg, S. (Review). The Canadian Modern Language, 65(3), 511-513.
  • Woods, D. y Çakır, H. (2011). Two dimensions of teacher knowledge: The case of communicative language teaching. System, 39 (3), 381-390.
  • Xie, K., & Hawk, N. (2017). Technology’s role and place in student learning: What we have learned from research and theories. En J. G. Cibulka, & B. S. Cooper (Eds.), Technology in school classrooms: how it can transform teaching and student learning today (pp. 1-17). Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Yuen, A. H., & Ma, W. W. (2002). Gender differences in teacher computer acceptance. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10(3), 365–382.