Cándida Morand y Viuda de Carbonellluz sobre una "hidden giant"

  1. Francisco Javier Fernández-Roca 1
  2. Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros 1
  1. 1 Universidad Pablo de Olavide

    Universidad Pablo de Olavide

    Sevilla, España

    ROR https://ror.org/02z749649

Investigaciones de Historia Económica = Economic History Research

ISSN: 1698-6989

Year of publication: 2024

Volume: 20

Issue: 1

Pages: 53-64

Type: Article

DOI: 10.33231/J.IHE.2023.06.001 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Investigaciones de Historia Económica = Economic History Research


This article sheds light on the figure of Cándida Morand, who was the sole owner and manager of a company, Viuda de Carbonell, through which she ensured the socioemotional wealth of her family, avoiding the collapse of the family firm Antonio Carbonell and, consequently, the family’s bankruptcy. In addition, she played a leading role in the management of her company, encouraging its evolution from the financial and tax-collection sector to commercial and industrial activities, supervising the intergenerational transfer process, and laying the foundations for the business’ longevity. Cándida Morand is finally acknowledged as much more than a «hidden giant» in the Spain of the late 19th century.

Bibliographic References

  • Abad Segura, R. (2002). Personajes alcoyanos. trescientas biografías de personajes. Alcoy: Abad Segura.
  • Achleitner, A. K., Fichtl, N., Kaserer, C. y Siciliano, G. (2014). «Real Earnings Management and Accrual-based Earnings Management in Family Firms», European Accounting Review, 23 (3), 431-461.
  • Aldrich, H. E. y Jennings, J. E. (2003). «The Pervasive Effects of Family on Entrepreneurship: Toward A Family Embeddedness Perspective», Journal of Business Venturing, 18 (5), 573-596.
  • Antheaume, N. y Robic, P. (2012). «From wife to widow entrepreneur in French family businesses. An invisible-visible role in passing on the business to the next generation», Working-paper, Lemna, 2012/21.
  • Aston, J. (2012). «Female Business Ownership in Birmingham 1849- 1901», Midland History, 37 (2), 187-206.
  • Aston, J. y Bishop, C. (eds.) (2020). Female entrepreneurs in the long nineteenth century: A global perspective. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Aston, J. y Di Martino, P. (2017). «Risk, success, and failure: female entrepreneurship in late Victorian and Edwardian England», Economic History Review, 70 (3), 837-858.
  • Berrone, P., Cruz, C., Gómez-Mejía, L. y Larraza-Kintana, M. (2010). «Socioemotional wealth and corporate responses to institutional pressures: Do family-controlled firms pollute less?», Administrative Science Quaterly, 55 (1), 82-113.
  • Berrone P., Cruz, C. y Gómez-Mejía, L. (2012). «Socioemotional Wealth in Family Firms: Theoretical. Dimensions, Assessment Approaches, and Agenda for Future Research», Family Business Review, 25 (3), 258-279.
  • Blondel, C. (2013). «The Women of the Family Business», en Fernández Pérez, P. y Colli, A. (eds.), The endurance of family businesses: a global overview. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., pp. 199-223.
  • Castejón Montijano, R. (1977). Génesis y desarrollo de una sociedad mercantil e industrial en Andalucía: La Casa Carbonell de Córdoba (1866-1918). Córdoba: Imp. San Pablo.
  • Collantes de Terán de la Hera, M. J. (1999). «La dote en el panorama de la codificación civil española». Revista Crítica de Derecho Inmobiliario, 75 (652), 791-832.
  • Colli, A. (2003). The History of family Business, 1850-2000. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P.
  • Colli, A., Fernandez Perez, P. y Rose, M. B. (2003). «National determinants of Family firm Development? Family Firms in Britain, Spain, and Italy in the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries», Enterprise and Society, 4 (1), 28-64.
  • Colli, A., García-Canal, E. y Guillén, M. F. (2012). «Family character and international entrepreneurship: A historical comparison of Italian and Spanish “new multinationals”», Business History, 55 (1), 1-20.
  • De Massis, A., Chua. J. H., y Chrisman, J. J. (2008). «Factors Preventing Intra-Family Succession», Family Business Review, 21 (2), 183-199.
  • Edvinsson, T. N. (2016). «Standing in the shadow of the corporation: women’s contribution to Swedish family business in the early twentieth century», Business History, 58 (4), 532-546.
  • Erickson, A. L. (2022). «Wealthy businesswomen, marriage and succession in eighteenth-century London», Business History [Ahead-ofprint], 1-30.
  • Escobar Andrae, B. (2017). «Women in business in late nineteenth-century Chile: Class, marital status, and economic autonomy», Feminist Economics, 23 (2), 33-67.
  • Escobar Andrae, B. (2021). «Mujeres en la empresa de Latinoamérica: una perspectiva a largo plazo», en Lluch, A., Monsalve, M. y Bucheli, M. (eds.), Historia empresarial en América Latina: Temas, debates y problemas. Bogotá: Universidad de Los Andes, pp. 276-295.
  • Fahed-Sreih, J. y Djoundourian, S. (2006). «Determinants of Longevity and Success in Lebanese Family Businesses: An Exploratory Study», Family Business Review, 19 (3), 225-234.
  • Fernández-Paradas, M. (2009). La industria del gas en Córdoba (1870- 2007). Barcelona: Gas Natural Fundación.
  • Fernández Pérez, P. (1997). El rostro familiar de la metrópoli. Redes de parentesco y lazos mercantiles en Cádiz, 1700-1812. Madrid: Siglo xxi.
  • Fernández Pérez, P. (2003). «Reinstalando la empresa familiar en la Economía y la historia económica. Una aproximación a debates teóricos recientes», Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 17, 45-66.
  • Fernández Pérez, P. y Hamilton, E. (2007). Gender and family firms: An interdisciplinary approach. Documents de treball (Facultat d’Economia i Empresa. Espai de Recerca en Economia), E07/171.
  • Fernández-Roca, F. J. (2012). «The Strategies of the Spanish cotton textile companies before the Civil War: the road to longevity», Business History, 54 (7), 1023-1054.
  • Fernández-Roca, F. J. (2014). «La “Casa Ybarra”: gestión empresarial, integración vertical e internacionalización 1860-1936», Revista de la Historia de la Economía y de la Empresa, 8, 125-151.
  • Fernández-Roca, F. J., López-Manjón J. D. y Gutiérrez-Hidalgo, F. (2018). «Accounting information as a facilitator of inter-generational transfer in family businesses: The case of an Andalusian business family», Investigaciones de Historia Económica/ Economic History Research, 14 (1), 23-30.
  • Fernandez-Roca, F. J. y Lopez-Manjon, J. D. (2021). «Business must go on: 175 years of an olive oil business beyond firms and families», Business History, 63 (3), 421-442.
  • Freeman, M., Pearson, R. y Taylor, J. (2006). «“A doe in the city”: Women shareholders in eighteenthand early nineteenth-century Britain», Accounting, Business and Financial History, 16 (2), 265-291.
  • Gálvez, L. y Fernández, P. (2007). «Female Entrepreneurship in Spain during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries», Business History Review, 81 (3), 495-515.
  • Gete-Alonso Calera, M. C. y Solé Resina, J. (2014). «Mujer y patrimonio: el largo peregrinaje del siglo de las luces a la actualidad», Anuario de Derecho Civil, 67 (3), 765-894.
  • Gómez-Mejía, L., Haynes, K. T., Núñez-Nickel, M., Jacobson, K. J. L. y Moyano-Fuentes, J. (2007). «Socioemotional Wealth and Business Risks in Family-controlled Firms: Evidence from Spanish Olive Oil Mills», Administrative Science Quarterly, 52 (1), 106-137.
  • Gómez-Mejía, L., Makri, M. y Larraza-Kintana, M. (2010). «Diversification decisions in family-controlled firms», Journal of Management Studies, 47 (2), 223-252.
  • Gómez-Mejía, L., Cruz, C., Berrone, P. y De Castro, J. (2011). «The bind that ties: Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms», Academy of Management Annals, 5, 653-707.
  • Gómez-Mejía, L., Cruz, C. e Imperatore, C. (2014). «Financial Reporting and the Protection of Socioemotional Wealth in Family-Controlled Firms», European Accounting Review, 23 (3), 387-402.
  • Guinnane, T. W. y Martinez-Rodríguez, S. (2016). «Flexibility in Spanish company law, 1885-1936», Revista de Historia Industrial, 56 (3), 81-112.
  • Guinnane, T. W. y Martínez-Rodríguez, S. (2018). «Instructions not included: Spain’s sociedad de responsabilidad limitada, 1919- 1936», European Review of Economic History, 22 (4), 462-482.
  • Guinnane, T. W. y Martínez-Rodríguez, S. (2018). «Choice of enterprise form: Spain 1886-1936», The Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 34 (1), 1-26.
  • Hernández-Nicolás, C. M. y Martínez-Rodríguez, S. (2019). «Guardando un legado, acunando un futuro. Viudas en las sociedades mercantiles en el cambio de siglo (1886-1919)», Revista de Historia Industrial, 28 (77), 93-118.
  • Hernández-Nicolás, C. M. y Martínez-Rodríguez, S. (2020). «Mirror, bridge or stone? Female owners of firms in Spain during the second of the long nineteenth century», en Aston, J. y Bishop, C. (eds.), Female entrepreneurs in the long nineteenth century. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 337-360.
  • Ibrahim, A. B, McGuire, J. y Soufani, K. (2009). «An Empirical Investigation of Factors Contributing to Longevity of Small Family Firms», Global Economy and Finance Journal, 2 (2), 1-21
  • Lewis, S. I. (2007). «Business Widows in Nineteenth-Century Albany, New York, 1813-1885», en Bell, R. M. y Yans-McLaughlin, V. (eds.), Women on Their Own: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Being. New Brunswick: Rutgers U.P., pp. 115-139.
  • Lewis, S. I. (2009). Unexceptional women: female proprietors in mid-nineteenth-century Albany, New York, 1830-1885. Ohio: The Ohio State U. P.
  • Litz, R. A. (2008). «Two Sides of a One-Sided Phenomenon: Conceptualizing the Family Business and Business Family as a Möbius Strip», Family Business Review, 21 (3), 217-236.
  • Martínez López, D. (2005). «Sobre familias, élites y herencias en el siglo xix», Historia Contemporánea, 31, 457-480.
  • Martínez-Rodríguez, S. (2019). «Mistresses of company capital: Female partners in multi-owner firms, Spain 1886-1936», Business History, 62 (8), 1373-1394.
  • Merle Suay, N. (2019). El mut de Morand. Denia: Dprint Denia.
  • Montañés, E. (2000). La empresa exportadora de Jerez. Historia económica de González Byass, 1835-1855. Cádiz: Universidad de Cádiz.
  • Napolitano, M.R., Marino, V. y Ojala, J. (2015). «In search of an integrated framework of business longevity», Business History, 57 (7), 955- 969.
  • Pareja Alonso, A. (2012). «Las mujeres y sus negocios en la gran ciudad contemporánea. Bilbao a principios del siglo xx», Historia contemporánea, 44, 145-181.
  • Pazzaglia, F., Mengoli, S. y Sapienza, E. (2013). «Earnings Quality in Acquired and Nonacquired Family Firms: A Socioemotional Wealth Perspective», Family Business Review, 26 (4), 374-386.
  • Ramadani, V. y Hoy, F. (2015). «Context and Uniqueness of Family Businesses», en Dana, L. P. y Ramadani, V. (eds.), Family Businesses in Transition Economies. Cham: Springer, pp. 9-37.
  • Ramírez, L. A. y Almaraz, A. (2016) «Entrando en materia. Las dos caras de una moneda: empresa y familia», en Almaraz, A. y Ramírez, L.A. (coords.), Familias empresariales en México Sucesión generacional y continuidad en el siglo xx. Tijuana: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, pp. 9-46.
  • Rodríguez-Modroño, P., Gálvez Muñoz, L. y Agenjo-Calderón, A. (2017). «The Hidden Work of Women in Small Family Firms in Southern Spain», The Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business, 2 (1), 66-87.
  • Romero-Marín, J. (2006). «Artisan women and management in nineteenth-century Barcelona», en Beachi, R., Craig, B. y Owens, A. (eds.), Women, business and finance in nineteenth-century Europe. Rethinking separate spheres. Oxford: Berg, pp. 81-95.
  • Rutterford, J. y Maltby, J. (2006). «“The widow, the clergyman and the reckless”: women investors in England, 1830-1914», Feminist Economics, 12 (1-2), 111-138.
  • Sharma, P. y Salvato, C. (2013). «Family firm longevity: A balancing act between continuity and change», en Fernandez Perez, P. y Colli, A. (eds.), The Endurance of Family Businesses. A Global Overview. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., pp. 43-56.
  • Solà, À. (2012). «Las mujeres como partícipes, usufructuarias y propietarias de negocios en la Barcelona de los siglos xviii y xix según la documentación notarial», Historia Contemporánea, 44, 109-144.
  • Stockmans, A., Lybaert, N. y Voordeckers, W. (2010). «Socioemotional Wealth and Earnings Management in Private Family Firms», Family Business Review, 23 (3), 280-294.
  • Zellweger, T. M. y Astrachan, J. H. (2008). «On the emotional value of owning a firm», Family Business Review, 25 (4), 280-297.
  • Zellweger, T. M., Kellermans, F. W., Chrisman, J. y Chua, J. (2012). «Family control and family firm valuation by family CEOs: The importance of intentions for transgenerational control», Organization Science, 23 (3), 851-868.
  • Muñoz López, P. (2001). Sangre, amor e interés. La familia en la España de la restauración. Madrid: Marcial Pons.
  • Moring, B. y Wall, R. (2017). Widows in European economy and society, 1600-1920. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.