Funcionamiento neuropsicológico en los Trastornos de la Conducta AlimentariaUn estudio comparativo

  1. Maldonado-Ferrete, Rubén 1
  2. Catalán-Camacho, María 1
  3. Álvarez Valbuena, Vanessa 1
  4. Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio 2
  1. 1 Instituto de Ciencias de la Conducta. Sevilla. España
  2. 2 Instituto de Ciencias de la Conducta. Sevilla. España. Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Sevilla. España.
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results: JONNPR

ISSN: 2529-850X

Année de publication: 2020

Volumen: 5

Número: 5

Pages: 504-534

Type: Article

DOI: 10.19230/JONNPR.3398 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDialnet editor

D'autres publications dans: Journal of Negative and No Positive Results: JONNPR

Objetivos de desarrollo sostenible


Introduction. Patients with eating disorders (ED) show several alterations in three main features or endophenotypes: central coherence, tasks based on changing criteria and impulse control according to different neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluation techniques. The objective of this work is to provide descriptive empirical evidence about these possible alterations and their relationship with emotional, daily functioning and eating behavior variables. Method. A total of 38 women were compared: 19 with ED and 19 healthy participants. Different  techniques were used to assess the speed of processing, memory, attention, impulsivity and emotional  state. Results. Differences in the results of the most of neuropsychological tests used were not significant except in the case of symbol search and in the immediate recall of the Rivermead Memory Test. The group with ED showed moderate depressive symptoms. Conclusions. The similar performance of the ED group respecting the neuropsychological tests could be explained by a style of information processing based on detail and without changing criteria. Depressive symptoms appear to be a vulnerability factor that correlates with the course of the disorder. Neuropsychological intervention in ED would provide new treatment techniques in a complementary way to those already applied; it would favor a more dimensional approach by bringing new therapeutic targets to light, and the comorbidity of these disorders would also be treated by acting on common factors. Consequently, new lines of applied neuropsychology research are suggested.  

Références bibliographiques

  • Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría. Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales. 5ª Ed. Madrid, España: Editorial Médica Panamericana; 2014.
  • Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Guía de Práctica Clínica sobre Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria. Barcelona: Agència d'Avaluació de Tecnologia i Recerca Mèdiques de Cataluña; 2009.
  • International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
  • Pérez-Álvarez M, Fernández-Hermida JR, Fernández Rodríguez C, Amigo-Vázquez I. Guía de tratamientos psicológicos eficaces I. Madrid, España: Ediciones Pirámide; 2015.
  • Verdejo-García A, Tirapu-Ustárroz J. Neuropsicología clínica en perspectiva: retos futuros basados en desarrollos presentes. Rev Neurol. 2012; 54: 180-186.
  • First MB, Pincus HA, Levine JB, Williams JB, Ustun B, Peele R. Clinical utility as a criterion for revising psychiatric diagnoses. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161 (6): 946-954.
  • Eddy KT, Dorer DJ, Franko DL, Tahilani K, Thompson-Brenner H, Herzog DB. Diagnostic crossover in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: implications for DSMVV. Am J Psychiatry. 2008; 165 (2): 245-250.
  • Treasure J, Lopez C, Roberts MR. Endophenotypes in eating disorders: moving toward etiologically based diagnosis and treatment focused on pathophysiology. Pediatric Health. 2007; 1: 171-181.
  • Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, Shafran R. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders: a “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment. Behav Res Ther. 2003; 41 (5): 509-528.
  • Robbins TW, Gillan CM, Smith DG, de Wit S, Ersche KD. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012; 16 (1): 81-91.
  • Wildes JE, Marcus MD. Incorporating dimensions into classification of eating disorders: three models and their implications for research and clinical practice. Int J Eat Disord. 2013; 46 (5): 396-403.
  • Oltra-Cucarella J, Espert-Tortajada R, Rojo-Moreno L. Neuropsychology and anorexia nervosa. Cognitive and radiological findings. Rev Neurol. 2012; 27 (8): 504-510.
  • Delvenne V, Goldman S, de Maertelaer V, Simon Y, Luxen A, Lotstra F. Brain hypometabolism of glucose in anorexia nervosa: normalization after weight gain. Biol Psychiatry. 1996; 40: 761-768.
  • Delvenne V, Goldman S, de Maertelaer V, Simon Y, Luxen A, Lotstra F. Brain glucose metabolism in eating disorders assessed by positron emission tomography. Int J Eat Disord. 1999; 25: 29-37.
  • Matsumoto R, Kitabayashi Y, Narumoto J, Wada Y, Okamoto A, Ushijima Y, et al. Regional cerebral blood Flow changes associated with interoceptive awareness in the recovery process of anorexia nervosa. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 30: 1265-1270.
  • Friederich HC, Wu M, Simon JJ, Herzog W. Neurocircuit function in eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2013; 46 (5): 425-432.
  • Santel S, Baving L, Krauel K, Munte TF, Rotte M. Hunger and satiety in anorexia nervosa: fMRI during cognitive processing of food pictures. Brain Res. 2006; 1114 (1): 138-148.
  • Sato Y, Saito N, Utsumi A, Aizawa E, Shoji T, Izumiyama M, et al. Neural basis of impaired cognitive flexibility in patients with anorexia nervosa. PLos ONE. 2013; 8 (5): e61108.
  • Sutoh C, Nakazato M, Matsuzawa D, Tsuru K, Niitsy T, Iyo M, et al. Changes in selfregulation-related prefrontal activities in eating disorders: a near infrared spectroscopy study. PLos ONE. 2013; 8 (3): e59324.
  • Wagner A, Aizenstein H, Mazukewicz L, Fudge J, Frank GK, Putnam K, et al. Altered insula response to taste stimuli in individuals recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008; 33 (3): 513-523.
  • Zastrow A, Kaiser S, Stippich C, Walther S, Herzog W, Tchanturia K, et al. Neural correlates of impaired cognitive-behavioral flexibility in anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2009; 166 (5): 608-616.
  • Feusner J, Deshpande R, Strober M. A translational neuroscience approach to body image disturbance and its remediation in anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2017; 50(9): 1014-1017.
  • Laycock R, Crewther SG, Crewther DP. A role for the ‘magnocellular advantage’ in visual impairments in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2007; 31 (3): 363-376.
  • Li W, Arienzo D, Feusner JD. Body dysmorphic disorders: neurobiological features and an updated model. Z Klin Psychol Psychother (Gott). 2013; 42 (3): 184-191.
  • Donnelly B, Touyz S, Hay P, Burton A, Russell J, Caterson I. Neuroimaging in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders: a systematic review. J Eat Disord. 2018; 6: 3.
  • Solano-Pinto N, de la Pena C, Solbes-Canales I, Bernabéu-Brotóns E. Perfiles neuropsicológicos en anorexia y bulimia nerviosa. Rev Neurol. 2018; 67 (9): 355-364.
  • Jáuregui-Lobera I. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012. Neuropsychiatric Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 415- 430.
  • Kanakam N, Trasure J. A review of cognitive neuropsychiatry in the taxonomy of eating disorders: state, trait or genetic?. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2013; 18 (1-2): 83-114.
  • Alvarado-Sánchez N, Silva-Gutiérrez C. Funciones ejecutivas y sintomatología asociada con los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Rev Latinoam Psicol. 2014; 46(3): 189-197.
  • Eneka KT, Arit JM, Yiu A, Murray SM, Chen EY. Assessment of executive functioning in binge-eating disorder independent of weight status. Int J Eat Disord. 2017; 50 (8):942-951.
  • Galimberti E, Fadda E, Cavallini MC, Martoni RM, Erzegovesi S, Bellodi L. Executive functioning in anorexia nervosa patients and their unaffected relatives. Psychiatry Res. 2013; 208 (3): 238-244.
  • Gillberg IC, Billstedt E, Wentz E, Anckarsäter H, Råstam M, Gillberg C. Attention, executive functions, and mentalizing in anorexia nervosa eighteen years after onset of eating disorder. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010; 32 (4): 358-365.
  • Guillaume S, Gorwood P, Jollant F, Van den Eynde F, Courtel P, Richar-Devantoy S. Impaired decision-making in symptomatic anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients: a meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2015; 45 (16): 3377-3391.
  • Lang K, Roberts M, Harrison A, Lopez C, Goddard E, Khondoker M, et al. Central coherence in eating disorders: a synthesis of studies using the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11 (11): e0165467.
  • Tchanturia K, Harrison A, Davies H, Roberts M, Oldershaw A, Nakazato M, et al. Cognitive flexibility and clinical severity in eating disorders. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6 (6):e20462.
  • Fox JR, Froom K. Eating disorders: a basic emotion perspective. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2009; 16 (4): 328-335.
  • Wechsler D. WAIS-III: Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para adultos-III. 2ª Ed. Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones; 2001.
  • Wilson BA, Cockburn J, Baddeley AD. The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test. Reading, U: Thames Valley Test Co; 1985.
  • Soler MJ, Ruiz JC. Performance and validation of the RBMT (Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test) in a sample of Spanish brain damaged. In: 7th ESCP Conference. Lisboa (Portugal); 1994.
  • Schimit M. Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: a handbook. Madrid, España; 1996.
  • Benedet MK, Alejandre MA. TAVEC. Test de Aprendizaje Verbal España-Complutense. Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones; 2014.
  • Golden JCh. Stroop Test de Colores y Palabras. Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones; 2001.
  • Reitan RM. Trail Making Test: manual for administration and scoring. Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones; 1992.
  • Rey-Rey A, Osterrieth P. Test de la figura compleja de Rey-Osterrieth. Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones; 1994.
  • Heaton RK. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual. Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc; 1981.
  • Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. BDI-II. Beck Depression Inventory Manual. 2ª Ed. San Antonio, Texas: Pearson PsychCorp; 1996.
  • Sanz J, Perdigón AL, Vázquez C. Adaptación española del inventario para la depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II): 2. Propiedades psicométricas en población general. Clínica y salud. 2003; 14 (3): 249-280.
  • Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. Adaptores: Buela-Casal G, Guillén-Riquelme A y Sendedos-Cubero N. STAI. Cuestionario de ansiedad estado-rasgo. 7ª Ed. Madrid, España: TEA Ediciones; 2008.
  • Guillén-Riquelme A, Buela-Casal G. Actualización psicométrica y funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems en el State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psycothema. 2011;23 (3): 510-515.
  • Garner, DM. Eating Disorder Inventory-3: Professional manual. Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc; 2004. Adaptadores: Elosua P, López-Jáuregui A, Sánchez-Sánchez F. Inventario de Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria-3. Madrid, España: TEA ediciones; 2010.
  • Pedrero EJ, Ruiz JM, Rojo G, Llanero M, Olivar A, Bouso JC, et al. Versión española del Cuestionario Disejecutivo (DEX-Sp): propiedades psicométricas en adictos y población no clínica. Adicciones. 2009; 21 (2): 155- 166.
  • Wilson BA, Alderman N, Burgess PW, Emslie HC, Evans JJ. The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). Flempton, Bury St Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company; 1996.
  • Andrewes DG, Horden C, Kaye A. The Everyday Functioning Questionnaire: a new measure of cognitive and emotional status for neurosurgical outpatients. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 1998; 8 (4): 377-391.
  • Roberts ME, Tchaturia K, Stahl D, Southgate L, Trasure J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of set-shifting ability in eating disorders. Psychol Med. 2007; 37 (8):1075-1084.
  • Lopez C, Tchanturia K, Stahl D, Treasure J. Central coherence in eating disorders: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2008; 38 (10): 1393-1404.
  • Sochlberg MM, Mateer CA. Cognitive rehabilitation: an integrative neuropsychological approach. 1ª Ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2001.
  • Gillberg IC, Råstam M, Wentz E, Gillberg C. Cognitive and executive functions in anorexia nervosa ten years after onset of eating disorder. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007; 29 (2): 170-178.
  • Schilder C, van Elburg A, Snellen W, Sternheim L, Hoek H, Danner U. Intellectual functioning of adolescent and adult patients with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2017; 50 (5): 481-489.
  • Lopez C, Stahl D, Tchanturia K. Estimated intelligence quotient in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2010; 9:40.
  • Calderoni S, Muratori F, Leggero C, Narzisi A, Apicella F, Balottin U, et al. Neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents with restrictive-type anorexia nervosa: an in-depth investigation with NEPSY-II. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol.2013; 35 (2): 167-179.
  • Korkman M, Kirk U, Kemp S. NEPSY-II. A developmental neuropsychology Assessment. 2ª Ed. San Antonio, Texas: Pearson PsychCorp; 2007.
  • Andrews PW, Thomson JA Jr. The bright side of being blue: depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex problems. Psychol Rev. 2009; 116 (3): 620-654.
  • Brooks SJ, Solstrand-Dahlberg L, Swenne I, Aronsson M, Zarei S, Lundberg L, et al. Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2014; 224 (3): 246-253.
  • Saxena S, Brody AL, Schwartz JM, Baxter LR. Neuroimaging and frontal-subcortical circuitry in obsessive- compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry Supple. 1998; 35: 26-37.
  • Uher R, Murphy T, Brammer MJ, Dalgleish T, Phillips ML, Ng VW, et al. Medial prefrontal cortex activity associated with symptom provocation in eating disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161 (7): 1238-1246.
  • Donofry SD, Roecklein KA, Wildes JE, Miller MA, Erickson KI. Alterations in emotions generation and regulation neurocircuitry in depression and eating disorders: a comparative review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016; 68: 911-927.
  • Booth R, Lowsley D. Local-global processing and cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders and typical development (Disserttion). London: University of London; 2006.
  • Buzzichelli S, Marzola E, Amianto F, Fassino S, Abbate-Daga G. Perfectionism and cognitive rigidity in anorexia nervosa: Is there an association? Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018; 26 (4): 360-366.
  • Steinglass JE, Sysko R, Mayer L, Berner LA, Schebendach J, Wang Y, et al. Pre-meal anxiety and food intake in anorexia nervosa. Appetite. 2010; 55 (2): 214-218.
  • Steinglass JE, Sysko R, Glasofer D, Albano AM, Simpson HB, Walsh BT. Rationale for the application of exposure and response prevention to the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2011; 44 (2): 134–141.
  • Kaye WH, Bailer UF. Understanding the neural circuitry of appetitive regulation in eating disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2011; 70 (8): 704–705.
  • Swann AC, Steinberg JL, Lijffijt M, Moeller FG. Impulsivity: differential relationship to depression and mania bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2008; 106 (3): 241-248.
  • Tchanturia K, Lounes N, Holttum S. Cognitive remediation in anorexia nervosa and related conditions: a systemic review. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2014; 22 (6): 454-462.
  • Turner H, Bryant-Waugh R. Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS): profiles of clients presenting at a community eating disorder service. Eur Eat Disorders Rev. 2004; 12 (1): 18-26.
  • Fagundo AB, de la Torre R, Jiménez-Murcia S, Agüera Z, Granero R, Tárrega S, et al. Executive functions profile in extreme eating/weight conditions: from anorexia nervosa to obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7 (8): e43382.